Ali Muhammed Moula Ali


The fish processing industry generates a considerable amount of by-products (60-70%) which are utilized as feedstock or discarded as waste. Commercial processing of seafood to produce diverse products results in significant amounts of waste consisting of shells, heads, intestines, scales, bones, fins, viscera, etc., rich in several valuable nutrients and other useful components. Owing to the abundance of availability, these by-products can be used for the extraction of value-added products. Fish skin and scales are excellent sources of collagen and gelatin. Collagens or gelatin from fish origins have attracted increasing interest for consumers as potential ingredients for various health-promoting benefits. Collagen has been widely used in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. Gelatin, a functional biopolymer with a high molecular weight (MW), is generated by the thermal denaturation of collagen. Most commonly gelatin is used in the food industry as a thickening agent, texturizer in confectionaries and stabilizers, gelling agent, salad dressing, as well as employed as food foams. Additionally, gelatin has plentiful and emerging applications in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biomedical, and biomaterial-based packaging industries. Fish viscera can be used to produce fish oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The nutritional value of fishery by-products has been well recognized in the last few decades. Simultaneously, the functional food industry has grown rapidly and there has been a substantial increase in the demand to produce stable bioactive ingredients. Thus, the recovery of functional compounds in fish processing by-products and application of these in terms of encapsulation and edible packaging has a promising approach for improving their stability and delivery process.